Ankle Conditions

Ankle Ligament Injuries

The bones of the ankle joint are held together by strong bands of tissue called ligaments. Each ligament is made of many strands of collagen fibres which is extremely strong.

The ligament on the inside of the ankle (deltoid ligament) is very strong. it mainly torn in association with severe fractures of the ankle bones.

The ligament on the outside of the ankle (lateral ligament) is made up of three separate bands: one at the front (anterior talo-fibular ligament), one in the middle (calcaneo-fibular ligament) and one at the back (posterior talo-fibular ligament). The front band is the usual ligament injured in sprains or tears of the ankle ligaments, and the middle band is sometimes affected. Read more...

Ankle Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that foot and ankle surgeons use to treat a wide range of problems in the ankle joint. Ankle arthroscopy uses a thin fibre-optic camera (arthroscope) that can magnify and display images from within the ankle on a video screen. Read more...

Total Ankle Replacement

Total ankle Replacement is very useful procedure for patients with end stage arthritis of the ankle joint. Arthritis of the ankle is a most commonly secondary to severe fractures and dislocation but also occurs as a result of wear and tear. Arthritis eventually leads to loss of cartilage, pain and/or deformity. The aim of ankle replacement is to improve ankle motion so the patient has less pain during activity.

TAR is considered in patients that suffer significant ankle pain and decreased function from arthritis after trying non operative management. Rheumatoid arthritis patients are usually good candidates for the ankle joint replacement. Other patients that should be considered are those that need but do not want a fusion-type procedure that would eliminate the motion at the ankle joint.Read more...

Posterior Ankle Impingement

The ankle joint is the joint between the leg bones (tibia and fibula) and the ankle bone (talus). Below the talus is the heel bone. The joint between the talus and heel bone is called the subtalar joint; it lies below the ankle joint. The talus has a bony prominence in the back next to the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon. This is the tendon that moves the big toe downward toward the floor.

The ankle joint is the joint between the leg bones (tibia and fibula) and the ankle bone (talus). Below the talus is the heel bone. The joint between the talus and heel bone is called the subtalar joint; it lies below the ankle joint. The talus has a bony prominence in the back next to the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon. This is the tendon that moves the big toe downward toward the floor.The bony posterior prominence might be the cause of ankle pain in some people if it is large (called steida process) or it is not completely fused with the talus bone (called an os trigonum).

Pain might also occur if the FHL tendon gets irritated. This can happen if the tendon doesn't fit well because the tunnel is too tight or the tendon is too big, or if the tendon is inflamed and swollen (called tenosynovitis).Read more...

Anterior Ankle Impingement

Anterior Ankle Impingement is a condition where an individual experiences pain at the front of the ankle, due to compression of the bony or soft tissue structures during activities that involve maximal ankle dorsiflexion motion.

During the movement of ankle dorsiflexion the foot and shin move towards one another, meaning the tibia approaches the front of the talus. This places compressive forces on the structures at the front of the ankle joint. If these forces are in excess or beyond what the ankle can withstand, damage and inflammation of these structures can occur. Repeated compression of the anterior ankle joint can lead to bone spurs on the front edge of the tibia or talus. This process does not have to be associated with arthritis of the ankle joint.Read more...

Achilles Tendon Pain

The Achilles tendon (or heel cord) is the thick tendon that runs down the back of the ankle joint. The tendon is made up of many bundles or fibres of a strong material called collagen. It is the tendon of the large muscles that make up the calf. When the muscle contracts, the Achilles tendon pulls on the heel to make us go up on tiptoe, or pushes us forwards when walking or running.

Most Achilles tendon problems are basically overuse injuries. Therefore it is more common in middle aged athletes. As we get older the tendon becomes less flexible and less able to absorb the repeated stresses of running. Eventually small tears occur in the fibres of the tendon. The body tries to repair these tears, however, sometimes the wear rate exceeds the repair rate. Instead, the tendon and its lining become painful and swollen, and the tendon may feel weak. The combination of degenerative and repair processes in the tendon is called tendonosis or tendonitis. In the severe cases, the tendon becomes weakened by the degenerative process to the extent that it can rupture completely. Read more...